Неовеберианство и профессии


Сакс М.

почетный профессор (Emeritus Professor) Университета Саффолка, Великобритания, приглашенный профессор Университета Линкольна, Королевского ветеринарного колледжа, Университета Лондона, Университета Вестминстера (Великобритания), Университета Торонто (Канада), Саффолк, Великобритания m.saks@uos.ac.uk

DOI: 10.31857/S013216250009646-3
ID статьи на сайте журнала: 8180


Ссылка при цитировании:

Сакс М. Неовеберианство и профессии // Социологические исследования. 2020. № 6. С. 28-41.
DOI: 10.31857/S013216250009646-3


Аннотация

В статье обсуждаются аргументы в пользу важности неовеберианского подхода к профессиям как к особому виду занятий. Показана возросшая роль профессий в изменчивом современном мире. Многие теоретические работы о сути и роли профессий были написаны в Великобритании и США, однако сейчас это направление расширяет границы, охватывая другие страны Европы и мира. Теория социологии профессий зародилась в 1950–1960-х гг. на основе двух подходов: определения признаков почитаемых профессий (deferential trait approach) и функционалистских представлений о профессиях. В обоих случаях профессиональная идеология принималась на веру. На смену таксономической перспективе в 1960–1970-е гг. пришел символический интеракционизм и другие критические подходы к профессиям – неомарксистский, фукодианский и дискурсивный, ассоциирующиеся с контркультурой. Краткая ревизия этих подходов способствует выявлению достоинств неовеберианского подхода, используемого для понимания профессий в современном контексте. В статье обозначены различные аспектынеовеберианского рыночного подхода, основанного на концепции исключающего социального закрытия М. Вебера. Рассматривается, как этот подход применяется на практике, каковы его потенциальные ограничения, а также перспективы для дальнейших плодотворных исследований в его рамках.


Ключевые слова
исключающее социальное закрытие; Макс Вебер; неовеберианство; профессии; социальные теории


Список литературы

Abbott A. (1988) The System of Professions: An Essay on the Division of Expert Labour. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.

Adams T. (2015) Sociology of Professions: International Divergencies and Research Directions. Work, Employment and Society. Vol. 29. No. 1: 154–165.

Adamson M., Manson S., Zakaria I. (2015) Executive Remuneration Consultancy in the UK: Exploring a Professional Project through the Lens of Institutional Work. Journal of Professions and Organization. Vol. 2. No. 1: 19–37.

Allsop J., Jones K. (2008) Protecting Patients: International Trends in Medical Governance. In: Kuhlmann E., Saks M. (eds) Rethinking Professional Governance: International Directions in Health Care. Bristol: Policy Press: 15–27.

Allsop J., Jones K. (2018) Regulating the Regulators: The Rise of the United Kingdom Professional Standards Authority. In: Chamberlain J.M., Dent M., Saks M. (eds) Professional Health Regulation in the Public Interest: International Perspectives. Bristol: Policy Press: 93–116.

Barber B. (1963) Some Problems in the Sociology of Professions. Daedalus. Vol. 92. No. 4: 669–688.

Beattie A. (1995) War and Peace among the Health Tribes. In: Soothill K., Mackay L., Webb C. (eds) Interprofessional Relations in Health Care. London: Edward Arnold: 11–30.

Becker H. (1962) The Nature of a Profession. In: Education for the Professions. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press: 27–46.

Bell D. (1976) The Coming of Post-industrial Society. New York: Basic Books.

Berlant J.L. (1975) Profession and Monopoly: A Study of Medicine in the United States and Great Britain. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Bolton S., Muzio D. (2008) The Paradoxical Processes of Feminization in the Professions: The Case of Established, Aspiring and Semi-professions. Work, Employment and Society. Vol. 22. No. 2: 281–299.

Borsay A., Hunter B. (eds) (2012) Nursing and Midwifery in Britain Since 1700. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Braverman H. (1998) Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century. New edition. New York: Monthly Review Press.

Brock D.M., Leblebici H., Muzio D. (2014) Understanding Professionals and their Workplaces: The Mission of the Journal of Professions and Organization. Journal of Professions and Organization. Vol. 1. No. 1: 1–15.

Burrage M. (2006) Revolution and the Making of the Contemporary Legal Profession: England, France and the United States. New York: Oxford University Press.

Cant S., Sharma U. (1996) Demarcation and Transformation within Homoeopathic Knowledge: A Strategy of Professionalization. Social Science and Medicine. Vol. 42. No. 4: 579–588.

Carchedi G. (1977) On the Economic Identification of Social Classes. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Carvahlo T. (2014) Changing Connections between Professionalism and Managerialism: A Case Study of Nursing in Portugal. Journal of Professions and Organization. Vol. 1. No. 2: 176–190.

Carvalho T., Santiago R. (eds) (2015) Professionalism, Managerialism and Reform in Higher Education and the Health Services. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Collins D., Dewing I., Russell P. (2009) The Actuary as a Fallen Hero: On the Reform of a Profession. Work, Employment and Society. Vol. 3. No. 2: 249–266.

Collins R. (1990) Market Closure and the Conflict Theory of the Professions. In: Burrage M., Torstendahl R. (eds) Professions in Theory and History: Rethinking the Study of the Professions. London: Sage: 24–43.

Cook L. (2007) Postcommunist Welfare States: Reform Politics in Russia and Eastern Europe. New York: Cornell University Press.

Ehrenreich B., Ehrenreich J. (1979) The Professional-Managerial Class. In: Walker P. (ed.) Between Capital and Labour. Brighton: Harvester Press: 5–45.

Etzioni A. (ed.) (1969) The Semi-professions and their Organization. New York: Free Press.

Evetts J. (1998) Professional Identity, Diversity and Segmentation: The Case of Engineering. In: Olgiati V., Orzack L., Saks M. (eds) Professions, Identity and Order in Comparative Perspective. Onati: Onati International Institute for the Sociology of Law: 57–70.

Evetts J. (2013) Professionalism: Value and Ideology. Current Sociology. Vol. 61. No. 5/6: 778–796.

Evetts J. (2000) Professions in European and UK Markets: The European Professional Federations. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy. Vol. 20. Iss. 11/12: 1–30. DOI: 10.1108/01443330010789250.

Evetts J. (2003) Reinterpreting Professionalism: As Discourse of Social Control and Occupational Change. In: Svensson L., Evetts J. (eds) Conceptual and Comparative Studies of Continental and Anglo-American Professions. Göteborg: Göteborg University: 21–34.

Evetts J. (2006) Short Note: The Sociology of Professional Groups. Current Sociology. Vol. 54. No. 1: 133–143.

Faulconbridge J., Muzio D. (2008) Organizational Professionalism in Globalizing Law Firms. Work, Employment and Society. Vol. 22. No. 1: 7–25.

Flood J. (2018) Professions and Professional Service Firms in a Global Context: Reframing Narratives. In: Saks M., Muzio D. (eds) Professions and Professional Service Firms: Private and Public Sector Enterprises in the Global Economy. Abingdon: Routledge: 26–45.

Foucault M. (1979) Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Fournier V. (1999) The Appeal to “Professionalism” as a Disciplinary Mechanism. Social Review. Vol. 47. No. 2: 656–673.

Freidson E. (1970) Profession of Medicine: A Study in the Sociology of Applied Knowledge. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co.

Freidson E. (1994) Professionalism Reborn: Theory, Prophecy and Policy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Freidson E. (2001) Professionalism: The Third Logic. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Goode W. (1960) Encroachment, Charlatanism and the Emerging Profession: Psychology, Sociology and Medicine. American Sociological Review. Vol. 25. No. 6: 902–914.

Goodrick E., Reay T. (2011) Constellations of Institutional Logics: Changes in the Professional Work of Pharmacists. Work and Occupations. Vol. 38. No. 3: 372–416.

Gorman E., Sandefur R. (2011) “Golden Age”, Quiescence, and Revival: How the Sociology of Professions Became the Study of Knowledge-based Work. Work and Occupations. Vol. 38. No. 3: 275–302.

Graf E., Sator M., Spranz-Fogasy T. (2014) Discourses of Helping Professions. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.

Granfield R., Mather L. (eds) (2009) Private Lawyers and the Public Interest: The Evolving Role of Pro Bono in the Legal Profession. New York: Oxford University Press.

Greenwood E. (1957) The Attributes of a Profession. Social Work. Vol. 2. No. 3: 45–55.

Gubrium J., Holstein J. (2003) Analyzing Interpretive Practice. In: Denzin N., Lincoln Y. (eds) Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage: 214–248.

Halliday T.C. (1987) Beyond Monopoly: Lawyers, State Crises, and Professional Empowerment. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Hasselbalch J., Seabrooke L. (2018) Professional Strategies and Enterprise in Transnational Projects. In: Saks M., Muzio D. (eds) Professions and Professional Service Firms: Private and Public Sector Enterprises in the Global Economy. Abingdon: Routledge: 46–64.

Hearn J., Biese I., Choroszewicz M., Husu L. (2016) Gender Diversity and Intersectionality in Professions and Potential Professions: Analytical, Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. In: Dent M., Bourgeault I., Dennis J., Kuhlmann E. (eds) The Routledge Companion on Professions and Professionalism. Abingdon: Routledge: 57–70.

Hickson D.J., Thomas M. W. (1969) Professionalization in Britain: A Preliminary Measure. Sociology. Vol. 3. No. 1: 37–53.

Hughes E. (1963) Professions. Daedalus. Vol. 92. No. 4: 655–668.

Iarskaia-Smirnova E., Abramov R. (2016) Professions and Professionalization in Russia. In: Dent M., Bourgeault I., Dennis J., Kuhlmann E. (eds) The Routledge Companion on Professions and Professionalism. Abingdon: Routledge: 280–294.

Johnson T. (1972) Professions and Power. London: Macmillan.

Johnson T. (1995) Governmentality and the Institutionalization of Expertise. In: Johnson T., Larkin G., Saks M. (eds) Health Professions and the State in Europe. London: Routledge: 7–24.

Jonnergård K., Erlingsdóttir G. (2012) Variations in Professions Adoption of Quality Reforms: The Cases of Doctors and Auditors in Sweden. Current Sociology. Vol. 60. No. 5: 672–689.

Kirkpatrick I. (2016) Hybrid managers and Professional Leadership. In: Dent M., Bourgeault I., Dennis J., Kuhlmann E. (eds) The Routledge Companion on Professions and Professionalism. Abingdon: Routledge: 175–187.

Krause E. (1996) The Death of the Guilds: Professions, States and the Advance of Capitalism, 1930 to the Present. New Haven, CO: Yale University Press.

Kuhlmann E., Annandale E. (eds) (2012) The Palgrave Handbook of Gender and Healthcare. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2nd edition.

Kuhlmann E., Saks M. (eds) (2008) Rethinking Professional Governance: International Directions in Healthcare. Bristol: Policy Press.

Larson M.S. (1977) The Rise of Professionalism: A Sociological Analysis. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Larson M.S. (1990) On the Matter of Experts and Professionals, or How It Is Impossible to Leave Nothing Unsaid. In: Torstendahl R., Burrage M. (eds) The Formation of Professions: Knowledge, State and Strategy. London: Sage: 24–50.

Leicht K.T. (2018) Professions and Entrepreneurship in International Perspective. In: Saks M., Muzio D. (eds) Professions and Professional Service Firms: Private and Public Sector Enterprises in the Global Economy. Abingdon: Routledge: 9–25.

Medvetz T., Sallaz J.J. (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Pierre Bourdieu. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Liljegren A., Saks M. (eds) (2016) Professions and Metaphors: Understanding Professions in Society. Abingdon: Routledge.

Lymbery M. (2000) The Retreat from Professionalism: From Social Worker to Care Manager. In: Malin N. (ed.) Professionalism, Boundaries and the Workplace. London: Routledge: 123–138.

Macdonald K. (1995) The Sociology of the Professions. London: Sage.

Miller P., Kurunmaki L., O'Leary T. (2008) Accounting, Hybrids and the Management of Risk. Accounting, Organizations and Society. Vol. 33. No. 7: 942–967.

Millerson G. (1964) The Qualifying Associations. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Navarro V. (1986) Crisis, Health and Medicine: A Social Critique. London: Tavistock.

Nettleton S. (1992) Power, Pain and Dentistry. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Noordegraaf M. (2018) Enterprise, Hybrid Professionalism and the Public Sector. In: Saks M., Muzio D. (eds) Professions and Professional Service Firms: Private and Public Sector Enterprises in the Global Economy. Abingdon: Routledge: 93–109.

Olgiati V. (2003) Geo-political Constructionism: The Challenge of Europe to the Comparative Sociology of the Professions. In: Svensson L., Evetts J. (eds) Conceptual and Comparative Studies of Continental and Anglo-American Professions. Göteborg: Göteborg University: 55–77.

Parkin F. (1979) Marxism and Class Theory: A Bourgeois Critique. London: Tavistock.

Parkin F. (1982) Max Weber. New York: Routledge.

Parry N., Parry J. (1976) The Rise of the Medical Profession. London: Croom Helm.

Perucci R. (1973) In the Service of Man: Radical Movements in the Professions. In: Halmos P. (ed.) Professionalization and Social Change. In: Sociological Review Monograph. No. 20. Keele: University of Keele: 179–194.

Pickard S. (2009) The Professionalization of General Practitioners with a Special Interest: Rationalization, Restratification and Governmentality. Sociology. Vol. 43. No. 2: 250–267.

Pickard S. (2010) The Role of Governmentality in the Establishment, Maintenance and Demise of Professional Jurisdictions: The Case of Geriatric Medicine. Sociology of Health and Illness. Vol. 32. No. 7: 1072–1086.

Porter S. (1996) Contra-Foucault: Soldiers, Nurses and Power. Sociology. Vol. 30. No. 1: 59–78.

Rogowski R. (1995) German Corporate Lawyers: Social Closure in Autopoietic Perspective. In: Dezalay Y., Sugarman D. (eds) Professional Competition and Professional Power: Lawyers Accountants and the Social Construction of Markets. London: Routledge: 114–135.

Roszak T. (1995) The Making of a Counter Culture. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Roth J.A. (1974) Professionalism: The Sociologists Decoy. Work and Occupations. Vol. 1. No. 1: 6–23. DOI: 10.1177/073088847400100102.

Saks M. (2010) Analyzing the Professions: The Case for a Neo-Weberian Approach. Comparative Sociology. Vol. 9. No. 6: 887–915.

Saks M. (1998) Deconstructing or Reconstructing Professions? Interpreting the Role of Professional Groups in Society. In: Olgiati V., Orzack L., Saks M. (eds) Professions, Identity and Order in Comparative Perspective. Onati: Onati International Institute for the Sociology of Law: 351–364.

Saks M. (2012) Defining a Profession: The Role of Knowledge and Expertise. Professions and Professionalism. Vol. 2. No. 1: 1–10.

Saks M. (2015a) Health Policy and Complementary and Alternative Medicine. In: Kuhlmann E., Blank R., Bourgeault I., Wendt C. (eds) The Palgrave International Handbook of Healthcare Policy and Governance. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan: 494–509.

Saks M. (2015b) Inequalities, Marginality and the Professions. Current Sociology Review. Vol. 63. No. 6: 850–868.

Saks M. (2016a) Professions and Power. In: Dent M., Bourgeault I., Dennis J. and Kuhlmann E. (eds) The Routledge Companion on Professions and Professionalism. Abingdon: Routledge: 71–85.

Saks M. (1995) Professions and the Public Interest: Medical Power, Altruism and Alternative Medicine. London: Routledge.

Saks M. (2018) Regulation and Russian Medicine: Whither Medical Professionalisation? In: Chamberlain M.J., Dent M., Saks M. (eds) Professional Health Regulation in the Public Interest: International Perspectives. Bristol: Policy Press: 117–134.

Saks M. (1983) Removing the Blinkers? A Critique of Recent Contributions to the Sociology of Professions. Sociological Review. Vol. 31. No. 1: 1–21.

Saks M. (2016b) Review of Theories of Professions, Organizations and Society: Neo-Weberianism, Neoinstitutionalism and Eclecticism. Journal of Professions and Organization. Vol. 3. No. 2: 170–187.

Saks M. (2003) The Limitations of the Anglo-American Sociology of the Professions: A Critique of the Current Neo-Weberian Orthodoxy. Knowledge, Work and Society. Vol. 1. No. 1: 11–31.

Saks M. (2015c) The Professions, State and the Market: Medicine in Britain, the United States and Russia. Abingdon: Routledge.

Saks M., Adams T. (2019) Neo-Weberianism, Professional Formation and the State: Inside the Black Box. Professions and Professionalism. Vol. 9. No. 2: 1–14.

Saks M., Brock D. (2018) Professions and Organizations in Europe. In: Siebert S. (ed.) Management Research: European Perspectives. Abingdon: Routledge: 185–200.

Saks M., Muzio D. (eds) (2018) Professions and Professional Service Firms: Private and Public Sector Enterprises in the Global Economy. Abingdon: Routledge.

Saunders P. (2007) Urban Politics: A Sociological Interpretation. Abingdon: Routledge.

Schinkel W., Noordegraaf M. (2011) Professionalism as Symbolic Capital: Materials for a Bourdieusian Theory of Professionalism. Comparative Sociology. Vol. 10. No. 1: 67–96.

Sciulli D. (2005) Continental Sociology of Professions Today: Conceptual Contributions. Current Sociology. Vol. 53. No. 6: 915–942.

Sommerlad H., Young R., Vaughan S., Harris-Short S. (eds) (2015) The Futures of Legal Education and the Legal Profession. Oxford: Hart.

Suddaby R., Cooper D.J., Greenwood R. (2007) Transnational Regulation of Professional Services: Governance Dynamics of Field Level Organizational Change. Accounting, Organizations and Society. Vol. 32. No. 4/5: 333–362.

Suddaby R., Muzio D. (2015) Theoretical Perspectives of the Professions. In: Empson L., Muzio D., Broschak J., Hinings B. (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Professional Service Firms. Oxford: Oxford University Press: 25–47.

Svennson L. (1999) Professionals as a New Middle Class: The Swedish Case. In: Hellberg I., Saks M., Benoit C. (eds) Professional Identities in Transition: Cross-cultural Dimensions. Södertälje: Almqvist & Wiksell International: 83–104.

Svensson L., Evetts J. (2010) Introduction. In: Svensson L., Evetts J. (eds) Sociology of Professions: Continental and Anglo-Saxon Traditions. Göteborg: Daidalos: 9–30.

Swedberg R., Agevall O. (2016) The Max Weber Dictionary: Key Words and Central Concepts. 2nd ed. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Tonkens E. (2016) Professions, Service Users and Citizenship: Deliberation, Choice and Responsibility. In: Dent M., Bourgeault I., Dennis J., Kuhlmann E. (eds) The Routledge Companion on Professions and Professionalism. Abingdon: Routledge: 45–56.

Waring J. (2014) Restratification, Hybridity and Professional Elites: Questions of Power, Identity and Relational Contingency at the Points of Professional-Organisational Intersection. Sociology Compass. No. 8: 688–704.

Weber M. (1968) Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology. New York: Bedminster Press.

Whittle A., Mueller F., Carter C. (2016) The “Big Four” in the Spotlight: Accountability and Professional Legitimacy in the UK Audit Market. Journal of Professions and Organization. Vol. 3. No. 2: 119–141.

Witz A. (1992) Professions and Patriarchy. London: Routledge.

Содержание номера № 6, 2020