The coexistence of riskophobia and riskophilia – an expression of “normal anomie”


Kravchenko S.A.

Dr. Sci. (Sociol.), Prof., Head of the Department of Sociology, MGIMO-University; Chief Researcher, Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Science, Moscow, Russia sociol7@yandex.ru

ID of the Article: 6552


For citation:

Kravchenko S.A. The coexistence of riskophobia and riskophilia – an expression of “normal anomie”. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya [Sociological Studies]. 2017. No 2. P. 3-13




Abstract

The article analyses development of different risks leading to the formation of riskophobia and riskophilia which are normalized in society today. They are considered “normal anomie” understood as an expanding set of vulnerabilities for society in form of side effects of innovation, rational and pragmatic human activity. It is shown that not only riskophobia and riskophilia are based on the chosen pragmatic and mercantile vector of human activity, but they are also determined by the nature of knowledge dynamics about the risks which is a part of public consciousness determining nature of human activity. Riskophobia allows to avoid socially destructive risks formats, negative risk perception via producing fears of dangers around human body and health problems. Riskophilia is stimulated by relevant knowledge, according to which risk-taking is acceptable and even desirable for innovative activities, exploring the unknown. Voluntary risk-taking may stimulate upward social mobility, career success, help to overcome fears, depressions, complexes. However, dysfunctional socially destructive practices representing the counterculture develop as well. Dominant risks are changing with the becoming of “world at risk” (U. Beck). They acquire the character of a staged global reality. Accordingly both riskophobia and riskophilia become largely staged, and their dispersion meanings encourage people to both avoidance and risk-taking.


Keywords
risk; riskophobia; riskophilia; “normal anomie”; staging of reality; risk funnel

References

Bauman Z. (2008) Tekuchaya sovremennost’ [Liquid modernity]. Saint-Petersburg: Piter. (In Russ.)

Bauman Z. (2006) Liquid Fear. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Bauman Z. (2009) Liquid Times. Living in an Age of Uncertainty. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Bauman Z. (2011) Collateral Damage. Social Inequalities in a Global Age. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Beck U. (2007) Cosmopolitan Version. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Beck U. (2010) World at Risk. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Bourdieu P., Wacquant L. (eds). (1992) An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Foucault M. (1997) The Essential Works, 1954–1984. Vol. 1: Ethics, Subjectivity and Truth. New York: The New Press.

Foucault M. (2006) Rozhdenie sotsial’noi meditsiny [The birth of social medicine]. In: M. Foucault Intellektualy i vlast’: Izbrannye politicheskie stat’i, vystupleniia i interv’iu [Intellectuals and Power: Selected Political Articles, Presentations and Interviews]. Mocow: Praksis. (In Russ.)

Freud Z. (1997) Psikhologiya mass i analiz chelovecheskogo Ya [Group psychology and the analysis of the ego]. In: Freud Z. Psikhoanaliticheskie etiudy [Psychoanalytic studies]. Minsk: OOO “Popurri”. (In Russ.)

Fromm E. (1995) Zdorovoe obshchestvo [The sane society]. In: Psikhoanaliz i kul’tura [Psychoanalysis and Culture]. Moscow: Iurist”. (in Russ.)

Giddens A. (1994) Living in a Post-traditional Society. U. Beck, A. Giddens, S. Lash. Reflexive Modernization: Politics, Tradition and Aesthetics in the Modern Social Order. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Giddens A. (2004) Uskol’zayushchiy mir: kak globalizatsiya menyaet nashu zhizn’ [Runaway World: as Globalization Changes our Life]. Мoscow: Ves’ mir. (In Russ.)

Giddens A. (2003) Ustroenie obshchestva [The Constitution of Society]. Мoscow: Akademicheskii Proekt. (In Russ.)

Knight F. Ponyatiya riska i neopredelennosti [The Meaning of Risk and Uncertainty]. Al’manakhe THESIS. No. 5: 12–28. (in Russ.)

Kravchenko S.A. (2014) Igraizatsiia obshchestva [Game-ization of Society]. In: Kravchenko S. A. Sotsiologiia v 2-kh tt. T.2. Novye i noveishie sotsiologicheskie teorii cherez prizmu sotsiologicheskogo voobrazheniia. uchebnik dlia akademicheskogo bakalavriata [Sociology in Two Volumes. Volume 2. Modern and Post-modern Sociological Theories through the Prism of Sociological Imagination]. Мoscow: Iurait. (In Russ.)

Kravchenko S.A. (2015) Sotsiologicheskoe znanie cherez prizmu “strely vremeni”. Vostrebovannost’ gumanisticheskogo povorota [Sociological Knowledge through the Prism of “Arrow of Tme”. Need for Humanistic Turn]. Moscow: MGIMO-University. (In Russ.)

Luhmann N. (1993) Risk: A Sociological Theory. New York: A. de Gruyter.

Luhmann N. (1994) Ponyatie riska [The Concept of Risk]. Al’manakhe THESIS. No. 5: 136–160. (In Russ.)

Lupton D., Tulloch, J. (2002) Life Would be Pretty Dull Without Risk’ Voluntary Risk-taking and its Pleasures. Health, Risk & Society. No. 4 (2): 113–124.

Lyng S. (2008) Edgework, Risk, and Uncertainty. J. O. Zinn (ed.). Social Theories of Risk and Uncertainties: An Introduction. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Toshchenko Zh.T. (2008) Paradoksal’nyi chelovek [Paradoxical Man]. Moscow: UNITI-DANA. (In Russ.)

Zubok Yu.A. (2007) Fenomen riska v sotsiologii. Opyt issledovaniia molodezhi [Phenomen of Risk in Sociology. The Experience of Youth Studies]. Мoscow: Mysl’. (In Russ.)

Content No 2, 2017