Trust to science in modern Russia in the contexts of the plurality of forms of knowledge


Zarubina N.N.

Dr. Sci. (Philos.), Prof., Department of Sociology, Moscow State University of International Relations of the MFA of Russia (MGIMO-University), Moscow, Russia n-zarubina@yandex.ru

DOI: 10.7868/S0132162518050100
ID of the Article: 7182


For citation:

Zarubina N.N. Trust to science in modern Russia in the contexts of the plurality of forms of knowledge . Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya [Sociological Studies]. 2018. No 5. P. 110-120




Abstract

The problems of the spread of unscientific knowledge and pseudoscience in modern Russia are considered on the basis of the discourse analysis of the struggle against pseudoscience. Necessity of developing correct theoretical bases for the separation of unscientific forms of knowledge (mysticism, esotericism) from pseudoscience as unreasonable, unreliable theories, claiming to be scientific is substantiated. It is shown that the sociocultural transformations of post-Soviet Russia and Russian academic science have undermined credibility of scientific knowledge in society. This contributes to the spread of mythological, religious, everyday knowledge, which gives answers to worldview questions of mass audiences replacing the scientific picture of the world. Necessity of researching reasons for actualization of unscientific knowledge and archaic cognitive layers of public consciousness in modern society is argued for. The latent consequence of the traditional trust of non-professional audiences towards science are the scientification of unscientific knowledge and the spread of pseudoscience, based on the authority of scientific degrees and titles. It justifies a necessity of not only criticizing unscientific forms of knowledge and exposing pseudoscience, but also revealing their latent functionality, which is the reason for their spread in society today.


Keywords
scientific knowledge; extra-institutional forms of knowledge; pseudoscience; criteria of demarcation; trust; mistrust; latent functionality

References

Aarnio К. (2007) Paranormal, Superstitious, Magical, and Religious beliefs. Helsinki University Printing House. URL: https://helda.helsinki.fi/bitstream/handle/10138/19774/paranorm.pdf (accessed 01.03.2017).

Abramov R. N. (2016) The role of the community and various forms of knowledge in the production of professional culture: on the example of Soviet and Russian popular Science Journalism. In: Abramov R. N. Sociology of Professions and Occupations: Essays of History and Key Concepts of the Disciplinary Field: monograph. Moscow: OOO “Variant”: 267–299. (In Russ.)

Alexandrov E. B. (2006) Problems of the expansion of pseudoscience. V zashhitu nauki [In Defense of Science]. No.1: 8–16. (In Russ.)

Alexandrov E. B. (2014) Phenomenon of pseudoscience in modern society and measures to counteract pseudoscientific manifestations. V zashhitu nauki [In Defense of Science]. No. 13–14: 9–21. (In Russ.)

Bart R. (2000) Mythology. Moscow: Izd-vo imeni Sabashnikovykh. (In Russ.)

Demushov K. G. (2009) On the Concept of “pseudoscience” in the explanatory dictionaries of the Russian language. Bulletin of the Chelyabinsk State University. No. 7 (188). Philology. Art History. Issue: 42–45. (In Russ.)

Dmitriev A. V., Sychev A. A. (2014) Scandal. Socio-philosophical Essays. Moscow: TsSPiM. (In Russ.)

Efremov Yu.N. (2006) Natural science and quasi-philosophy. V zashhitu nauki [In Defense of Science]. No. 1: 76–84. (In Russ.)

Efremov Yu.N. (2013) False science, pseudoscience and hypothesis. In: Pseudoscience in the Modern World: the Media Sphere, Higher Education, School. Sankt Petersburg: Publishing house of the VVM: 30–41. (In Russ.)

Fesenkova L. V. (2004) Sciensisation of esotericism and pseudoscience. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya [Sociological studies]. No. 1: 92–98. (In Russ.)

Kravchenko S. A. (2014) Re-discovery of social reality as an indicator of sociological knowledge validity. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya [Sociological studies]. No. 5: 27–37. (In Russ.)

Lyotard J.-F. (1998) The state of postmodernity. Мoscow: I-t experimental sociology, St. Petersburg: Aletejya. (In Russ.)

Polishchuk R. F. (2013) The spiritual history of mankind as a single branching contradictory process. In: Pseudoscience in the Modern World: media sphere, higher education, school. St. Petersburg: Publishing House of the VVM: 11–29. (In Russ.)

Sergeev A. G. (2015) The problem of practical demarcation of science and pseudoscience on the Russian scientific field. In: V zashhitu nauki [In Defense of Science]. No. 16: 49–68. (In Russ.)

Shermer M. (2002) Why people believe weird things: pseudoscience, superstition, and other confusions of our time. N.Y.: Holt. URL: http://bookre.org/reader?file=1460300&pg=5 (accessed 30.03.2017).

Styopin V. S. (2001) Science and pseudoscience Science. Naukovedenie. No. 1. URL: http://vivovoco.astronet.ru/VV/JOURNAL/SCILOG/STEPIN1.HTM (accessed 04.01.17). (In Russ.)

Svechnikova E. V. (2015) Alternative metanarrative. In: Pseudoscience in the modern world: media sphere, higher education, school. St. Petersburg: Publishing House of the VVM: 146–157. (In Russ.)

Toshchenko Zh.T. (2002) On the conceptual apparatus of sociology. In: Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya [Sociological studies]. No. 9: 3–16. (In Russ.)

Volodikhin D. (1999) The Phenomenon of Folk-History. Skepsis [Skepticism. Scientific and educational magazine]. URL: http://scepsis.net/library/id_148.html (accessed 5.03.2017). (In Russ.)

Volodikhin D., Eliseeva O., Oleynikov D. (1998) History of Russia in Small Peas (In Memory of Historical Science is dedicated). Moscow: ZAO “Manufaktura”, Publishing House “Unity”. (In Russ.)

Yurevich A. V. (2011) Economics of esoteric knowledge. V zashhitu nauki [In Defense of Science]. No. 8: 90–97. (In Russ.)

Zarubina N. N. (2014) Simplified social practices as a means of adaptation to a complex society. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya [Sociological studies]. No. 5: 37–46. (In Russ.)

Content No 5, 2018