Evolution of school of external studies:
concepts, practices, issues
Subject of the article is evolution of school of external studies as a reflection of the history of civic education and a dialogue between citizen and the state. XIX century results are briefly summarised: how did external studies evolve from a compensative practice for under-privileged people into an alternative educative strategy based on self-education, development of critical thinking and growth of civic engagement. The interpretation of the Soviet period as a fledging period of the school of external studies within the scope of the system of adult education is explained. Special attention is paid to the phenomenon of “children” school of external studies. Post-Soviet period is focus of the research.