Memory of the Great Patriotic war:
Victory day in the historical consciousness of Russians


Golovashina О.V.

Cand. Sci. (Hist.), Assoc. Prof., Tambov State University, Tambov, Russia ovgolovashina@mail.ru

Linchenko A.A.

Cand. Sci. (Philos.), Assoc. Prof., Research fellow, Financial University, Lipetsk branch, Lipetsk, Russia linchenko1@mail.ru

Anikin D.A.

Cand. Sci. (Philos.), Assoc. Prof., Saratov State University, Saratov, Russia dandee@list.ru

ID of the Article:


For citation:

Golovashina О.V., Linchenko A.A., Anikin D.A. Memory of the Great Patriotic war: Victory day in the historical consciousness of Russians. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya [Sociological Studies]. 2017. No 3. P. 123-133




Abstract

The article is devoted to the results of the content analysis of the Victory Day representations in the contemporary Russian Internet space between 2010- and 2015. The peculiarities of the internet environment as a mediator of cultural memory are determined. The main sources of information were the Internet blogs (livejournal.com, liveinternet.ru, social networks, etc.), integrated in the search system Yandex-blogs. The data of the content analysis are compared to the results of sociological research of historical consciousness and historical memory. Specific features of mass perceptions about the importance of the Victory Day are analyzed in the context of the transformation of the communicative memory of the Great Patriotic War into the cultural memory. It is concluded that there are significant contradictions in the mass historical consciousness of the contemporary Russians. There exist a well-known selectiveness, sharpness in assessment, the dominance of the Soviet ideological cliches, interrelation of the discussion with current external and internal political problems, actualization of the family memory and usage of the theme of the Victory in the Great Patriotic War as a platform for criticizing current government. The Internet space shows general trend of the modern Russian memory culture: gradual devaluation of the historical meanings and, accordingly, consideration of particularistic versions of the historical memory (family, local social group), the polarization of mass historical consciousness. The Internet space of historical consciousness of Russians demonstrates actualisation of the theme of the past revaluation, the theme of family memory, the theme of legitimation of power through the Feast of Victory, the theme of the modern generation of the Russians, that is not worthy of memory. The idea of the past revaluation is actualised in the context of the debates about the value of the Victory, the role and place of I. V. Stalin, comparison between communism and fascism, opposition of the official version of the Victory to the “soldier” memory of it. The theme of family memory spread in the Internet blogs is connected with the discussion of the war family memories, the desire of the Russians to consider the victory in the war through the autobiographical memory of the loved ones, keeping the victory in the war as a fundamental symbol of personal and social pride. The subject of legitimizing power gained its popularity in the context of criticism of the official politics of memory and the desire of the state to justify modern domestic and foreign policy in the context of using symbols of the Victory. The idea of the generation that is not worthy of memory is usually discussed in the context of the low level of knowledge about the war and the emotional belonging of the young generation to the tragic events of the war.


Keywords
historical consciousness; historical identity; Internet; Victory Day; historical memory

References

Assman A. (2014) Dlinnaya ten’ proshlogo: istoricheskaya kul’tura i memorial’naya politika [The Long Shadow of the Past: Historical Culture and Memorial Policy]. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo “Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie”. (In Russ.)

Assman Y. (2004) Kul’turnaya pamyat’: pis’mo, pamyat’ o proshlom i politicheskaya identichnost’ v vysokih kul’turah drevnosti [Cultural Memory: Writing, Memory of the Past and Political Identity in high Cultures of Antiquity]. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo “Yаzyki slavyanskoj kul’tury”. (In Russ.)

VCIOM. Press-vypusk № 2821. 22.04.2015. Parad Pobedy: dan’ pamyati ili demonstraciya voennoj moshchi? [VCIOM. Press release No. 2821. 4/22/2015. Victory Day parade: tribute to the memory or demonstration of military power?]. URL: http:// wciom.ru/index.php?id=236&uid=115233 (accessed 18.06.2016) (In Russ.)

Gorshkov M.K., Sheregi F.E. (2009) The youth of Russia: demographic tendencies and historical consciousness. Monitoring obshсhestvennogo mnenija: ehkonomicheskie i social’nye peremeny mnenija [The Monitoring of Public Opinion: Economic and Social Changes Journal]. No. 6 (94): 5–45 (in Russ).

Gudkov L. (2005) Pamyat’ o vojne i massovaya identichnost’ rossiyan [Memory of war and mass identity of Russians]. In: Pamyat’ o vojne 60 let spustya: Rossiya, Germaniya, Evropa [Memory of War 60 years later: Russia, Germany, Europe]. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo “Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie”: 83–103. (In Russ.)

Zhuravlev G.T., Merkushin V.I., Fomichev Y.K. (1989) Istoricheskoe soznanie: opyt sociologicheskogo issledovaniya [Istorical consciousness: the experience of sociological research]. Voprosy istorii [The Questions of History]. No.6: 118–129. (In Russ.)

Ot El’cina do Putina: tri ehpohi v istoricheskom soznanii rossiyan (2007) [From Yeltsin to Putin: three eras in historical consciousness of Russians]. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo “VCIOM”. 222 p. (In Russ.)

Repina L.P. (2005) Koncepcii social’noj i kul’turnoj pamyati v sovremennoj istoriografii [The concepts of social and cultural memory in a modern historiography]. In.: Fenomen proshlogo [The Phenomenon of the Past]. Moscow: Izdatel’skij dom HSE. P. 5–15. (In Russ.)

Toshchenko Z.T. (2000) Istoricheskoe soznanie i istoricheskaya pamyat’. Analiz sovremennogo sostoyaniya [Historical consciousness and historical memory. analysis of the current state]. Novaya i novejshaya istoriya [Modern and contemporary history]. No.4: 3–14. (In Russ.)

FOM-media. 30 oktyabrya 2012. Pamyat’ o zhertvah politicheskih repressij [FOM-media. October 30, 2012. The Memory of the victims of political repressions]. URL: http://fom.ru/posts/10675 (accessed 18.06.2016). (In Russ.)

FOM-media. 5 maya 2015. Velikaya Otechestvennaya vojna v semejnoj istorii. Kak pamyat’ o Velikoj Otechestvennoj vojne peredaetsya iz pokoleniya v pokolenie [FOM-media. May 5, 2015. The Great Patriotic War in history of family. How is the memory of the Great Patriotic War passed from generation to generation]. URL: http://fom.ru/Proshloe/12142 (accessed 18.06.2016). (In Russ.)

FOM-media. 8 maya 2013. Pamyat’ o Velikoj Otechestvennoj. O voennyh istoriyah, vospominaniyah, pamyati o vojne [FOMmedia. May 8, 2013. Memory of the Great Patriotic War. About military stories, memoirs, memory of war]. URL: http:// fom.ru/posts/10913 (accessed 18.06.2016). (In Russ.)

FOM-media. 8 maya 2015 a. Deyatel’nost’ gosudarstva po sohraneniyu pamyati o vojne. Vse li nado rasskazyvat’ o vojne? I kak ocenivayut svoi znaniya rossiyane? [FOM-media. On May 8, 2015 a. Activity of the state for preservation of memory of war. Whether everything should be told about war? and how Russians estimate their knowledge?]. URL: http://fom.ru/ Proshloe/12151 (accessed 18.06.2016). (In Russ.)

FOM-media. 8 maya 2015 b. Prazdnovanie Dnya Pobedy. Den’ Pobedy – ehto narodnyj ili gosudarstvennyj prazdnik? [FOMmedia. On May 8, 2015. The Celebration of the Victory Day. Is The Victory Day a national or public holiday?]. URL: http://fom.ru/Proshloe/12152 (accessed 18.06.2016). (In Russ.)

FOM-media. 25 aprelya 2012. “Georgievskaya lentochka”. Otnoshenie rossiyan k novoj tradicii [FOM-media. April 25, 2012. “St. George’s Ribbon”. The Attitude of Russians to the new tradition]. URL: http://fom.ru/proshloe/10421 (accessed 18.06.2016). (In Russ.)

Content No 3, 2017