Trauma as deformation of evolutionary and revolutionary ways of development (a sociological theorizing)

Toshchenko Zh.T.

Corresponding member of Russian Academy of Sciences, Scientific Director of the Sociological Faculty of Russian State Humanitarian University, Chief Researcher, Institute of Sociology of the Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

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Toshchenko Zh.T. Trauma as deformation of evolutionary and revolutionary ways of development (a sociological theorizing). Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya [Sociological Studies]. 2017. No 4. P. 16-26


Usually, scholarly analysis of the world/state/society proceeeds along well-known paths – revolution/ evolution. This article argues that in the modern world there is such a specific phenomenon as societies of trauma. In author’ opinion, these countries are for a long time stagnating and/or degraded in their development, they are in recession losing previously achieved milestones. The article discloses generic and specific features of the trauma of the society: 1) lack of precise and clear development strategy and understanding of the development prospects; 2) economic degradation; 3) lack of constructive political forces; 4) mutual transitions of power resources into capital and vice versa, capital into power resources; 5) withdrawal, both voluntary and forced, of the majority of active population from participating in political life; 6) absence of a state ideology and/or national idea; 7) ignoring national interests, or, on the contrary, their excessive absolutization; 8) a sharp increase in social inequality; 9) political strain and loss of desire for national sovereignty; 10) lack of respect for traditions and the past experience of the country or, conversely, archaism of pre-existing, gone into oblivion ethnic and religious and patriarchal attitudes. Particular attention is paid to Russia, which, so the author, can be attributed to the traumatized societies, for in its development, rejecting socialist past and proclaiming the new, like unexplored copies in its development, it is in a state of uncertainty of their future despite the broadcast official approval. And the fact that the country has not reached those milestones, in many respects depends on a strategic course, which in one way or another retains its liberal orientations. In this context, an analysis of the obstacles that have to be overcome and hamper development of Russia, and the measures that are being implemented, can not be fully attributed to either an evolutionary or a revolutionary path of development. In conclusion, the author suggests ways out from this state.

revolution; evolution; trauma; development; operation; social consequences


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