1917
the time of transformation of ideas into material force


Toshchenko Zh.T.

Corresponding member of Russian Academy of Sciences, Scientific Director of the Sociological Faculty of Russian State Humanitarian University, Chief Researcher, Institute of Sociology of the Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia zhantosch@mail.ru

DOI: 10.7868/S013216251710004X
ID of the Article:


For citation:

Toshchenko Zh.T. 1917: the time of transformation of ideas into material force. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya [Sociological Studies]. 2017. No 10. P. 36-43




Abstract

The article analyzes the ideas that received the greatest popularity and actively participated in determining the fate of the 1917 revolution. The main ideological orientations that reflected the face of political space at that time are revealed. The characteristics of the leading political parties – the Russian National Union, the Party “Union of 17 October”, the Party of People freedom, the Socialist-Revolutionaries, the Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks – are described. Ideas are considered from the point of view of the cardinal problems of Russian society: attitude to the war, the needs and aspirations of the main classes of Russia – working class and peasantry. Accordinly, an analysis of the social base of each of these parties is given. It is shown that only the Bolsheviks could formulate slogans reflecting aspirations of the masses: “The peace – to the peoples”, “the factories – to the workers”, “the land – to the peasants”. It was these ideas that attracted the working class and the peasantry to side with the Bolsheviks, ensured transition of the main social strata of the people to their side and support of Bolshevik actions to seize and retain power, successful confrontation with other political forces and a victorious outcome of ensuing civil war.


Keywords
February revolution; October revolution; ideas, ideology; world view; Black Hundreds; Octobrists; Cadets; Socialist-Revolutionaries; Mensheviks; Bolsheviks
References

Alekseeva G.D. (1990) Populism in Russia in the Twentieth Century. Ideological Evolution. Moscow: Nauka. (In Russ.)

Chulkov G.I. (1916) The fate of Russia. Talk about modern events. Petrograd: Korabl. (In Russ.)

Danilkin L.A. (2017) Lenin: Pantocrator of Solar Dust. Moscow: Molodaya gvardiya. (In Russ.)

Garmiz V.V. (1970) The Collapse of the Socialist-Revolutionary Governments. Moscow. (In Russ.)

Kara-Murza S.G. (2001) The Cadet Lesson. In: Soviet Civilization. Vol.1. Moscow: Algorithm: 396–422. (In Russ.)

Katkov G.M. (1997) The February Revolution. Moscow: Russiy put. (In Russ.)

Lenin V.I. (1974) State and revolution: the doctrine of Marxism on the state and the tasks of the proletariat in the revolution. In: Complete Works. 5th ed. Vol. 33. Moscow: Politizdat: 1–128. (In Russ.)

Marx K. To the Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Law. In: Marx K., Engels F. Composition. Vol.1: 414–429. (In Russ.)

Nenarokov A.P. (2000) Political defeat of the Mensheviks. In: Political Parties of Russia: History and the Modernity. Ed. by A.I. Zevelev, Yu.P. Sviridenko, V.V. Shelokhaev. Moscow: ROSSPEN. (In Russ.)

Political Parties of Russia: History and the Modernity. (2000) Ed. by A.I. Zevelev, Yu.P. Sviridenko, V.V. Shelokhaev. Moscow: ROSSPEN. (In Russ.)

Russian Multi-Party System: Formation, Functioning, Development. (1996) Moscow: Tsentr prikladnykh polit. issled. INDEM. (In Russ.)

Soloviev K.A. (2011) Legislative and Executive Power in Russia: Mechanisms of Interaction (1906–1914). Moscow: ROSSPEN. (In Russ.)

The History of the Party “Union October 17”. (1996–2000) In 2 vol. Moscow. (In Russ.)

Tyutyukin S.V. (2000) Mensheviks. In: Political Parties of Russia: History and the Modernity. Ed. by A.I. Zevelev, Yu.P. Sviridenko, V.V. Shelokhaev. Moscow: ROSSPEN: 227–242.

Yurganov A. (2017) The first world war and the crisis of russian modernism. Rossiya XXI [Russia ХХI]. No. 2: 30–53. (In Russ.)


Content No 10, 2017