What is a modern Russian village?


Toshchenko Zh.T.

Corresponding member of Russian Academy of Sciences, Scientific Director of the Sociological Faculty of Russian State Humanitarian University, Chief Researcher, Institute of Sociology of the Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia zhantosch@mail.ru

DOI: 10.7868/S0132162517120091
ID of the Article:


For citation:

Toshchenko Zh.T. What is a modern Russian village?. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya [Sociological Studies]. 2017. No 12. P. 89-98




Abstract

Based on the data of state statistics and sociological information, a picture of the modern Russian village is given, represented not only by agricultural production and its accompanying institutions, its servicing, but also by industrial, construction and communication organizations, and also by the gradually increasing number of recreational, excursion, ecological settlements. There is also a trend of new forms of residence: a simultaneous life in the city and in the countryside (summer residents, freelancers, creative professions). The analysis of organizational forms of managing is carried out: a) joint-stock companies (former collective and state farms); b) farmers; c) personal farms (household plots of land), as well as the emergence and rapid growth of agroholdings, the development of which complicated the functioning of agricultural production, including the solution of employment problems, led to increased unemployment, gave birth to new forms of waste (neootchodnichestvo). The article describes the effectiveness and efficiency of agricultural production, its material and technical base, expressed in terms of productivity of field crop cultivation, productivity of livestock and other branches. Particular attention is paid to the state and development trends of the social sphere of rural settlements, which made it possible to reveal the magnitude of its stagnation and deformation in spheres of education, culture and health. In conclusion, an assessment of the agrarian policy, its consequences and possible ways of its improvement and rationalization was made.


Keywords
agriculture; rural settlements; forms of management on the land; material base of agricultural production; social agrarian sphere; agrarian policy

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Content No 12, 2017