Modernization of Russia in XVIII–XX centuries as a convergence project
Dr. Sci. (Hist.), Prof., St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia firstname.lastname@example.org
The imperial modernization took place according to the classical European scenario. In terms of goals, means and results Soviet modernization was its continuation. However, while in some respects (the formation of a rational, educated, secularly oriented personality, industrialization, urbanization, the democratization of the family, the emancipation of women and children), Soviet modernization bore resemblance with the classical Western model, it was different as far as other aspects were concerned (the priority of the state over the society, the primacy of the collective over the individual, restriction of individual freedom, centralization, planning). In short, the formula of Soviet modernization amounted to technological and material progress on the basis of traditional social institutions. Soviet modernization provided less rapid development and came at a higher price compared to the Imperial one.
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