Who voted for Nazis (1928–1933)? On the social composition of voters


Shults E.E.

Cand. Sci. (Hist.), Moscow State Regional University, Moscow, Russia nuap1@yandex.ru

DOI: 10.7868/S0132162518060090
ID of the Article:


For citation:

Shults E.E. Who voted for Nazis (1928–1933)? On the social composition of voters. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya [Sociological Studies]. 2018. No 6. P. 104-115




Abstract

The article is devoted to a problem of social composition of voters of NSDAP 1928 to 1933. The author considers concepts of class approach to voters of national socialists, problems of age, gender and confessional division in preferences of voters and also roles of increase in voter turnout and overflowing of electorate between parties as factors for Nazis success. The importance of problem of support the NSDAP by social groups on elections in Weimar republic consists in the further possible conclusions about reasons of incredible rise of the National Socialist Movement and, generally, about the reasons for arrival of Nazis to power. At the same time, today any question in this regard can not be considered solved and causes heated arguments among researchers. The author concludes that the factor of religious affiliation played a role for Zentrum party and Bavarian People’s Party electorate, but was not crucial for NSDAP. The female voices played a role for the Bavarian People’s Party and the Communist Party of Germany, but not for electorate of NSDAP. Voices of young voters at the age of 20– 30 years could not play a crucial role in progress of NSDAP, as well as voters’ turnout.


Keywords
social base of NSDAP; elections in the Weimar republic; arrival of Nazis to the power; electoral history of Germany

References

Anikeev А. А., Kolga G. I., Puchovskaya N. Е. (2001) NSDAP: ideology, structure and functions. Stavropol: SGU. (In Russ.)

Boak H. (2003) Mobilising women for Hitler: the female Nazi voter, in Working towards the Führer. Ed. by A. MacElligott, T. Kirk. Manchester University Press: 68–92.

Boak H. (1996) National Socialism and Working-Class Women, in The Rise of National Socialism and the Working Classes in Weimar Germany. Ed. by Conan Fischer. Berghahn Books: 163–188.

Boak H. L. (1989) “Our Last Hope”: Women’s Votes for Hitler – A Reappraisal, German Studies Review. Vol. 12: 289–310.

Boak H. L. (1989) Women in Weimar Germany. The “Frauenfrage” and the Female Vote, in Social Change and Political Development in Weimar Germany. Ed. by R. Bessel, E. J. Feuchtwanger. London: Croom Helm: 155–173.

Bremme G. (1956) Die politische Rolle der Frau in Deutschland. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Briggs A., Clavin P. (2003) Modern Europe, 1789 – Present. Pearson Education.

Brovko L. N. (1988) German social_democracy in the years of fascist dictatoorship: 1933–1945. Мoscow: Nauka. (In Russ.)

Caplan J. (1992) The Rise of National Socialism 1919–1933, in Modern Germany Reconsidered: 1870–1945. Ed. by G. Martel. Taylor & Francis: 117–139.

Carsten F. L. (1978) Interpretations of Fascism, in Fascism, a Reader’s Guide: Analyses, Interpretations, Bibliography /Ed. by W. Laqueur University of California Press: 415–434.

Deutsche Geschichte 1933–1945: Dokumente zur Innen und Aussenpolitik. (1993) Hrsg. von W. Michalka. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer-Taschenbuch-Verlag: 342.

Falter J. W. How Likely Were Workers to Vote for the NSDAP? in Conan Fischer (ed.) (1996) The Rise of National Socialism and the Working Classes in Weimar Germany, Berghahn Books: 9–45.

Falter J. W. The economics crisis of the 1930’s, in Rotberg R. I. (ed.) (2001) Politics and Political Change: A Journal of Interdisciplinary History Reader. MIT Press: 99–130.

Falter J. W. The National Socialist Mobilisation of New Voters: 1928–1933. (2014) In: Thomas Childers (ed.) The Formation of the Nazi Constituency 1919–1933. Routledge: 202–231.

Falter J. W. The Social Bases of Political Cleavages in the Weimar Republic, 1919–1933. (1992) In: Larry Eugene Jones, James Retallack (ed.) Elections, Mass Politics, and Social Change in Modern Germany: New Perspectives, Cambridge University Press: 371–398.

Falter J. W., Lindenberger T., Schumann S. (1986) Wahlen und Abstimmungen in der Weimarer Republik: Materialien zum Wahlverhalten, 1919–1933. München: Beck.

Fischer C. (2002) The Rise of the Nazis. Second Edition. Manchester University Press.

Galkin А. А. (1989) German fascism. Мoscow: Nauka. (In Russ.)

Gintsberg L. I. (2004) Early history of Nazism. Race for power. Moscow: Veche. (In Russ.)

Hamilton R. J. (1982) Who Voted for Hitler? NJ: Princeton University Press.

Hartwig. Das Frauenwahlrecht in der Statistik. (1931) Tagung der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft. No. 21: 167–182.

Hartwig. Wie die Frauen im Deutschen Reich von ihrem politischen Wahlrecht Gebrauch machen. (1928) Allgemeines Statistisches Archiv. No. 17: 497–512.

King G., Rosen O., Tanner M., Wagner A. F. (2008) Ordinary Economic Voting Behavior in the Extraordinary Election of Adolf Hitler. The Journal of Economic History. Vol. 68: 951–996.

Кul’bakin V.D. (1978) German social democracy 1924–1932. Мoscow: Nauka. (In Russ.)

Lipset S. M. (1960) Political Man: the social bases of politics. New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc.

Madden P. (2007) The Social Class Origins of Nazi Party Members as Determined by Occupations, 1925– 1933. (2007) In: Mühlberger D., Madden P. The Nazi Party: The Anatomy of a People’s Party. 1919– 1933. Peter Lang: 141–152.

Mason T. W. (1993) Social Policy in the Third Reich: The Working Class and the National Community, 1918– 1939. Berg.

Mitchel O. C. (1972) Nazism and the Common Man: Essays in German History (1929–1939). Burgess Publishing Company.

Möller H. (1990) Weimar: die unvollendete Demokratie. München: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag.

Mühlberger D. (2003) The social bases of Nazism, 1919–1933. Cambridge University Press.

Mühlberger D. (2007) The Sociology of the NSDAP: the Question of Working Class Support. In: Mühlberger D., Madden P. The Nazi Party: The Anatomy of a People’s Party. 1919–1933. Peter Lang: 53–78.

Nazis and Fascists in Europe, 1918–1945. (1969) Quadrangle Books.

Neisser Н. (1930) Sozialstatistische Analyse des Wahlergebnisses. Die Arbeit. No. 7: 654–659.

Patrushev А. I. (2003) German History: Thugh the Thorns of Two Millennia. Мoscow: ID Mezhd. un-ta v Moskve. (In Russ.)

Payne S. G. (1995) A History of Fascism: 1914–1945. University of Wisconsin Press.

Reichstagswahlen 1919–1933. Das Deutsche Reich. URL: http://www.gonschior.de/weimar/Deutschland/Uebersicht_RTW.html (accessed 19.06.2017).

Ruge V. (1985) As Hitler has come to the power: German fascism and monopolies. Мoscow: Mysl’. (In Russ.)

Shults E. E. (2016) From the Weimar republic to the Third Reich: Electoral history of Germany the 1920 – the beginning of the 1930. Moscow: Lenand. (In Russ.)

Shults E. E. (2014) Nazism sociology: formation of the main approaches in a historiography. Vestnik RUDN. Ser. Sotsiologiya [Bulletin of Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia. Sociology series]. No. 2: 61–72. (In Russ.)

Shults E. E. (2015) Problematic issues of a social base of NSDAP: to the reasons of success of Nazis on elections of 1928–33. Vestnik RUDN. Ser. Sotsiologiya [Bulletin of Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia. Sociology series]. No. 1: 42–53. (In Russ.)

Sneeringer J. (2002) Winning Women’s Votes: Propaganda and Politics in Weimar Germany. University of North Carolina Press.

Statistisches Jahrbuch für das Deutsche Reich. Herausgegeben vom Statistischen Reichsamt. Einundfünfzigster Jahrgang. 1926. (1926) Berlin: Verlag von R. Hobbing.

Stephenson J. (2014) Women in Nazi Germany. Routledge.

Striefler H. (1946) Deutsche Wahlen in Bildern und Zahlen. Düsseldorf: Wende-Verlag W. Hagemann.

Thomas K. (1943) Women in Nazi Germany. London: Gollancz, 1943.

Vatlin A.Yu. (2002) Germany in the 20th century. Моscow: ROSSPEN. (In Russ.)

Content No 6, 2018