Precarious Employment in Russia:
Specifying Major Indicators

Аnisimov R.I.

Cand. Sci. (Sociol.), Russian State University for the Humanities, Moscow, Russia

DOI: 10.31857/S013216250006652-0
ID of the Article:

The article was supported by Russian Science Foundation (project No. 18-18-00024).

For citation:

Аnisimov R.I. Precarious Employment in Russia: Specifying Major Indicators. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya [Sociological Studies]. 2019. No 9. P. 64-72


The article is devoted to the analysis of labor relations in Russia. These relations acquire the features of precarious employment, since they give rise to an unstable position of the employee in the labor market. In the work, indicators of precarious employment were designed, allowing to analyze the extent of this phenomenon in Russia. These indicators are: presence/absence of employment contract, type of employment, duration of working time, place of work, type of relationship with the employer. On the basis of selected indicators, precarious employment is: work on the basis of a verbal agreement, work on fixed-term contracts up to 1 year, seasonal and occasional employment, underemployment, under-employment, overtime work, additional work, extra labor. Based on the selected indicators of Federal State Statistics Service, the Russian Monitoring of the Economic Situation and Public Health of the National Research University Higher School of Economics (RLMS-HSE), an all-Russian sociological survey organized by the RSUH, an analysis of the extent of precarious employment in Russia was conducted. It was revealed that from one third to one half of all Russians aged 15 to 72 years work in conditions of unstable employment. The data obtained indicate the prevalence of precarious employment in Russia.

precarious employment; informal employment; seasonal and fragmentary employment; underemployment; overtime; additional work; the agency labor


Bobkov V.N. (ed.) (2018) Unstable Employment in Russian Federation: Theory and Methodology of Identification, Evaluation and Reduction. Moscow: KNORUS. (In Russ.)

Fedchenko A.A., Kolesnikova O.A., Dashkova E.S., Dorokhova N.V. (2016) Informal Employment: Theoretical Foundations, Research, Forecast. Voronezh: Voronezhskiy TSNTI – filial FGBU «REA» Minenergo Rossii. (In Russ).

Kozina I.M. (2013) Employees of Borrowed Labor. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya [Sociological Studies]. No. 5: 19–31. (In Russ.)

Kuchenkova A.V. (2018) Employment Precarization as a Factor of Secondary Employment. In: State and Society in the Mirror of Sociological Measurements (Ryazan VIII Sociological Reading): Nation Scientific and Practical Conferences with International Participation; Ryazan, 21–22 November 2018. Moscow: Izd-vo Ippolitova: 175–180. (In Russ.)

Labour Force, Employment and Unemployment in Russia (based on sample labour force surveys). (2018) Moscow: Rosstat. URL: (accessed 02.01.2019). (In Russ.)

Russian Statistical Yearbook 2017: Stat. book. (2017) Moscow. Rosstat URL: regl/b17_13/Main.htm (accessed 01.01.2019). (In Russ.)

Savage M. et al. (2013) A New Model of Social Class? Findings from the BBC’s Great British Class Survey Experiment. Sociology. Vol. 47. No. 2: 219–250. DOI: 10.1177/003803851348112.

Toshenko Zh. (2018) Precariat: from Protoclass to a New Class. Moscow: Nauka. (In Russ.)

Content No 9, 2019