Secondary Employment in the Context of Precarization on the Russian Labor Market

Kuchenkova A.V.

Cand. Sci. (Soc.), Senior Lecturer, Russian State University for the Humanities, Senior Research Fellow, Institute of Sociology of FCTAS RAS, Moscow, Russia

DOI: 10.31857/S013216250006659-7
ID of the Article:

This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, project No. 18-18-00024.

For citation:

Kuchenkova A.V. Secondary Employment in the Context of Precarization on the Russian Labor Market. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya [Sociological Studies]. 2019. No 9. P. 73-83


The article examines peculiarities of the secondary employment at the present stage of Russian labor market development. The motives of secondary employment are revealed: money (the desire for additional income, its stability) and others (self-realization, obtaining new knowledge and skills, search for new acquaintances and connections, insurance in case of loss of the first job, ensuring stability). The paper characterizes proportion of workers, involved in secondary employment, according to official statistics and sociological surveys. On the basis of an all-Russian survey of the working population the article presents a comparison of working conditions, material well-being, social attitudes of three groups of workers: those with regular secondary employment, with occasional secondary employment and those, who do not have it. It is demonstrated that secondary employment is associated with less protected and stable position, worse terms of employment, worse subjective financial well-being (despite the lack of significant differences in the actual total income); dissatisfaction with work, working conditions and life in general; confidence in the future and lack of fear of losing their jobs. At the same time secondary employment does not give satisfaction in the labor sphere of life and does not lead to an increase in subjective wellbeing. It keeps for employees the role of the instrument of adjustment and adaptation to a situation of insecurity, instability of income and employment.

secondary employment; additional employment; second job; occasional employment; precarization; Russian labor market


Bamberry L., Campbell I. (2012) Multiple Job Holders in Australia: Motives and Personal Impact. Australian Bulletin of Labour. Vol. 38. No. 4: 293–314.

Bessokirnaya G. P., Temnitsky A.L. (1999) Secondary Employment and Its Social Consequences. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya [Sociological Studies]. No. 5: 34–40. (In Russ.)

Breusova A.G. (2005) Secondary Employment: Factors of Supply and Demand. Vestnik Omskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta [Bulletin of Omsk State University]. No. 3: 38–44. (In Russ.)

Dickey H., Watson V., Zangelidis A. (2011) Is It All about Money? An Examination of the Motives behind Moonlighting. Applied Economics. No. 43(26): 3767–3774.

Heineck G. (2009) The Determinants of Secondary Jobholding in Germany and the UK. Zeitschrift für Arbeitsmarkt Forschung – Journal for Labour Market Research. Vol. 42. Iss. 2: 107–120.

Kalleberg A.L. (2009) Precarious Work, Insecure Workers: Employment Relations in Transition. American Sociological Review. Vol. 74. February: 1–22.

Kuchenkova A.V. (2018) Employment Precarization as a Factor of Secondary Employment. In: State and Society in the Mirror of Sociological Measurements (Ryazan VIII Sociological Reading): Nation Scientific and Practical Conferences with International Participation; Ryazan, 21–22 November 2018. Moscow: Izd-vo Ippolitova: 175–180. (In Russ.)

Labour Force, Employment and Unemployment in Russia (based on sample labour force surveys). (2018) Moscow: Rosstat. URL: (accessed 02.01.2019). (In Russ.)

Nadeljaev A.G. (2004) Secondary Employment in the Functioning of the Labour Market. Vestnik Omskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta [Bulletin of Omsk State University]. No. 3: 49–55. (In Russ.)

Perova M.B. (2016) The Dynamics and Factors of Secondary Employment of the Population. Sotsium i vlast’ [Society and Power]. No. 6(62): 74–79. (In Russ.)

Popova I.P., Sedova N.N. (2004) Additional Employment in Successful Adaptation Strategies of the Population. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya [Sociological Studies]. No. 2: 31–42. (In Russ.)

Roshchin S.Y., Razumova T.O. (2002) Secondary Employment in Russia: Modeling of Labor Supply. Moscow: EERC. (In Russ.)

Shtroo A.V. (2009) Secondary Employment in the Russian Economy. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta [Bulletin of Tomsk State University]. No. 3(59): 41–45. (In Russ.)

Strebkov D.O., Shevchuk A.V. (2017) Work Values of Self-employment and Organization Employment. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya [Sociological Studies]. No. 1: 81–93. (In Russ.)

Toshchenko Zh.T. (2018) Precariat: from Protoclass to a New Class. Moscow: Nauka. (In Russ.)

Voronin G.L. (2015) Secondary Employment. Vestnik Rossijskogo monitoringa economicheskogo polozheniya i zdorov’ya naseleniya NIU VShE (RLMS-HSE) [Bulletin of The Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey – Higher School of Economics]. Vol. 5: 108–122. URL: data/2015/10/09/1077435180/Vestnik%20RLMS-HSE_2015.pdf (accessed 15.02.2019). (In Russ.)

Webster B.D., Edwards B.D., Smith M.B. (2018) Is Holding Two Jobs Too Much? An Examination of Dual Jobholders. Journal of Business and Psychology. May: 1–15. DOI: 10.1007/s10869-018-9540-2.

Content No 9, 2019