Dynamic Analysis of Achievement and Opportunity Inequality in Russian School Education

Ibragimova Z.F.

Cand. Sci. (Econom.), Assoc. Prof., Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia. badertdinova@mail.ru

Frants M.V.

Cand. Sci. (Techn.), Assoc. Prof., Senior Researcher, Institute of Social and Economic Research of the Ufa Scientific Centre of RAS, Ufa, Russia. tan-marina@mail.ru

DOI: 10.31857/S013216250013781-2
ID of the Article:

The reported study was funded by RFBR, research project No. 19–010–00453.

For citation:

Ibragimova Z.F., Frants M.V. Dynamic Analysis of Achievement and Opportunity Inequality in Russian School Education. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya [Sociological Studies]. 2021. No 9. P. 54-64


The work deals with studying dynamics of opportunities inequalities in the educational achievements of Russian students. The research is based on the data from the Program for the International Student Assessment (PISA), waves 2003, 2006, 2009, 2012, 2015, 2018. The methodology is based on a parametric approach and ex-ante definition of equality of opportunity. In the period under review, dynamics of inequality in educational achievements is rather unstable, with a downward trend in all three areas of literacy under consideration. The greatest level of inequality of opportunity is observed in reading. In the period 2003-2012, the opportunity inequality tended to rise. In 2015, the level of opportunity inequality fell significantly in all three literacy areas, but grew again in 2018. Сontribution of the family background to the inequality of opportunities in educational achievements of Russian students is very high – approximately 60-80%, that is, economic and cultural aspects are almost equally important. Spatial factor also plays a significant role tending to increase in recent years. A specific feature is significant contribution of gender to the inequality of opportunities for reading literacy.

inequality of educational opportunities; individual achievements; circumstances; efforts; PISA
Content No 9, 2021