The Public and Private Life World of the Precariat:
Main Features and Landmarks

Toshchenko Zh.T.

Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Scientific Director and Head of Chair of Theory and History of Sociology, Russian State University for the Humanities; Chief Researcher, Institute of Sociology of FCTAS RAS, Moscow, Russia

DOI: 10.31857/S013216250016200-3
ID of the Article:

The article was written with the support of the Russian Science Foundation No. 18-18-00024.

For citation:

Toshchenko Zh.T. The Public and Private Life World of the Precariat: Main Features and Landmarks. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya [Sociological Studies]. 2021. No 11. P. 24-36


The article analyzes the public and private life world of the precariat, a new emerging (proto)class, which currently includes about half of the economically active population in Russia. The life world of the precariat, its social position as the largest social community in Russian society is examined and compared with data for the entire economically active population, as well as with other communities and groups. An answer is given to the question of what is the attitude of the precarians to the ongoing macro-economic, macro-social and macro-political problems when a person acts as a citizen of the country. The social position of the employee as a resident of the administrative territory and his/her concerns at this level of social organization of society are also analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the characterization of the socio-economic position of precarians as workers within the framework of the problems that concern them in labor organizations. Finally, it analyzes the private life of people as participants in interpersonal relationships and contacts. This approach allows us to more fully characterize the life world of the precariat, to identify its landmarks, including taking into account the specifics of employment in various sectors (spheres) of the economy. The main features and prospects of public and private life of precarians, costs and deformation processes influencing the normalization of their life world are characterized.

sociology of life; precariat; life world; public life; private life; citizen; resident; worker; micro-environment


Andreeva E.A., Vishnevskaya M.N. (2019) Psychological Meaning of Work for the Inhabitants of the Modern City. Mir nauki. Pedagogika i psikhologiya [World of Science. Pedagogy and Psychology]. No. 2. Vol. 7. URL: (accessed 16.06.2021). (In Russ.)

Golenkova Z.T., Goliusova Yu.V. (2015) Precariate as a New Phenomenon in Modern Social Structure. In: Golenkova Z.T. (ed.) The Employee in Modern Russia. Moscow: Novyy khronograf: 121–138. (In Russ.)

Gorshkov M.K., Sheregi F.E. (2020) Youth of Russia in the Mirror of Sociology: By the Results of Many Years of Research. Moscow: FNISC RAN. (In Russ.)

Levashov V.K. (2020) The Russian State and Society in the Period of Liberal Reforms: 2nd ed. Moscow: Yurayt. (In Russ.)

Nioradze G.V. (2021) Precariousness in a Production Organization. In: Toshchenko Zh.T. (ed.) Precarious Employment: Origins, Criteria, Features. Moscow: Ves’ Mir: 199–211. (In Russ.)

Shkaratan O.I., Karacharovskiy V.V., Gasiukova E.N. (2015) Precariat: Theory and Empirical Analysis (Polls in Russia, 1994–2013 Data). Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya [Sociological Studies]. No. 12: 99–110. (In Russ.)

Standing G. (2014) Precariat: The New Dangerous Class. Moscow: Ad Marginem. (In Russ.)

Toshchenko Zh.T. (2015) Sociology of Life. Moscow: UNITY-DANA (In Russ.)

Toshchenko Zh.T. (2018) Precariat: From Protoclass to a New Class. Moscow: Nauka. (In Russ.)

Toshchenko Zh.T. (ed.) (2020) Precariat: The Formation of a New Class. Moscow: TsSPiM. (In Russ.)

Toshchenko Zh.T. (ed.) (2021) Precarious Employment: Origins, Criteria, Features. Moscow: Ves’ Mir. (In Russ.)

Content No 11, 2021