Attitude to emigration in contemporary Russian province
Institute of Sociology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia Vozmitel@isras.ru
Institute of Sociology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia email@example.com
The goal of the article is to research problems of potential emigration from Russian provinces. The attitude to emigrate from Russia is one of the most important generalized 172 Социологические исследования № 11, 2015 indicators of problems of the country. External and internal factors determining this attitude are analysed on the basis of data of representative regional research in 2013. External factors are social, economic and political living conditions in the Russian provinces. Internal factors are value orientations, attitudes, requirements. Three types of attitudes, and, respectively, three markedly differing groups of respondents are shown. The first group of “the disoriented, practical people” aims to leave Russia forever. They are, mainly, young people sharing the idea “to be able to enjoy life pleasures” ready to work only for good money or those who do not want to work at all, but dream of fast material success. The second group – “optimists” self-actualize themselves in the homeland and want to leave Russia for a while. Their main value orientation is interesting work allowing to show their abilities and talents. Desire to self-actualize themselves, to expand scale and space of their life and activity are main reasons for leaving Russia. The third group of “traditionalists” would not leave the country under any circumstances. People, usually elderly, with family, sharing civilized traditional values of Russian-Soviet way of life do not want to leave Russia. They are not aiming at material success at any cost, try to live by the truth, conscience, justice and are ready to do at their work everything they can irrespective of the salary size. It is shown that different systems of value orientations and needs are cornerstone of these distinctions. Their conflict with existing social and economic and social and political conditions is main reason for leaving Russia. Today aspiration to emigrate is closely connected to uncivilized character of Russian labor market and lack of stable vertical social mobility channels.