Higher Educaton and Socio-Professional Status:
Mitigation of Gender Inequalities in Russia

Karmaeva N.N.

Ph.D, Docent, Institute of Education, National Research University «Higher School of Economics», Moscow, Russia nkarmaeva@hse.ru

Khavenson T.E.

Ph.D, Researcher, Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia tkhavenson@hse.ru

Ilieva-Trichkova P.

Doctor, Researcher, Institute for Philosophy and Sociology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria petya.ilievat@gmail.com

DOI: 10.31857/S013216250008811-5
ID of the Article:

The article was prepared within the framework of the Basic Research Program at the National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE) and supported within the framework of a subsidy by the Russian Academic Excellence Project “5–100”; project “Dynamics of inequalities in participation in higher and adult education: A comparative social justice perspective” – JustEdu (2020–2024), funded by the National Science Programme Vihren of the National Science Fund (No. KP-06-DV-2, 16.12.2019), Bulgaria. The authors would like to thank the editor and the reviewers who kindly reviewed the earlier version of this manuscript and provided valuable suggestions and comments.

For citation:

Karmaeva N.N., Khavenson T.E., Ilieva-Trichkova P. Higher Educaton and Socio-Professional Status: Mitigation of Gender Inequalities in Russia. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya [Sociological Studies]. 2020. No 3. P. 108-120


As the situation in education and labour market is changing in Russia, characterized by the expansion of services sectors and high participation in higher education, the mechanisms of social inequality reproduction are evolving. According to the intersectionality theory, social advantages and disadvantages are reproduced at the intersection of various social categories – social class, gender and others. In the paper, the outcomes of individuals in education and in the labour market representing three cohorts, born in 1954–1964, 1965–1975 and 1976–1986, were analyzed. Using the data provided by the European Social Survey, rounds 3–6 and 8, the hypotheses about the presence of cumulative effect from the intersection of gender and social class were tested. The results partially confirm the formulated hypotheses in case of achieved socio-professional status, but not in case of achieved higher education. 1) Women have more chances than men to obtain higher education; 2) women from families where fathers were workers have more chances than men from such families to move to the group “lower services class”. The latter positive effect is observed in case social class is specified based on mother’s profession; however, it is not significant. Therefore, women are likely to benefit most from the recent changes in education and labour market, compared to men. However, women are likely to find themselves in less prestigious and less paid segments of the services sector, despite the fact that their jobs require more skills.

socio-professional status; intersectionality theory; educational achievements; social inequality; post-soviet transformation; European Social Survey
Content No 3, 2020